The UVic Writer's Guide

A Brief Citation Guide for Internet Sources in History and the Humanities

The following suggestions for citations of Internet sources in history are adapted from those developed by Melvin E. Page <>. They are derived from the essential principles of academic citation in Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 5th ed. (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1987).

Bibliographic Citations

Basic citation components and punctuation

Author's Last Name, First Name. <author's internet address, if available>. "Title of Work" or "subject line of message." In "Title of Complete Work" or title of list/site as appropriate. <internet address>. Date, if available.

The samples below indicate how citations of particular electronic sources might be made. Please note that permission should be obtained for the citation of all electronic materials unless they are in the public domain, or your quotation fits within generally accepted "fair use" guidelines.

Listserv Messages

Drakakis, John <>. "SHK 6.0260 Re: Early Modern Subjectivity." In SHAKSPER. <>. 2 April 1995.

World Wide Web

Osborne, Laurie. "SAA Hyperessay on Electronic Shakespearean Criticism" <>. April, 1996.

For an individual page, use the title at the top of the window for the title of the page.

FTP Site

Heinrich, Gregor. []. "Where There Is Beauty, There is Hope: Sau Tome e Principe." <>. July 1994.

Gopher Site

Bierce, Ambrose. Devil's Dictionary. <gopher://>. May 1994.

Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara. "Making Difference." < The Researcher/History/H-Net/H-Amstdy (American Studies)/Essays & Discussions About American Studies>. 20 July 1995.

Usenet Group Messages

Dell, Thomas. <>. "<EDTECH> EMG: Sacred Texts (Networked Electronic Versions)." In <alt.etext>. 4 February 1993.

E-mail Messages

Werstine, Paul. <>. "Proposal." Private email message to Michael Best, <>. 5 June 1996.

Works Cited, footnotes and endnotes

Basic citation components and punctuation

[note number] Author's First name and Last name, <author's internet address, if available>, "Title of Work" or "title line of message," in "Title of Complete Work" or title of list/site as appropriate, <internet address>, date if available.

Additional Source Material on Internet Citations

Dodd, Sue A. "Bibliographic References for Computer Files in the Social Sciences: A Discussion Paper." <gopher://>. Revised May 1990. (Published in IASSIST Quarterly, 14, 2(1990): 14-17.)

Li, Xia and Nancy Crane. Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information. Westport: Meckler, 1993.

Walker, Janice R. "MLA-Style Citations of Internet Sources." < walker/janice.html>. April 1995.

Original Copyright ©1996, H-Net, Humanities OnLine. Reprinted with permission.


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Copyright, The Department of English, The University of Victoria, 1995
This page updated September 19, 1995