Verbs for Referring to Sources
Many verbs that refer to what someone else has written are immediately followed by noun clauses (clauses beginning with that). Some of the most common of these verbs are:
admit agree argue assume believe claim conclude consider decide deny determine discover doubt explain hypothesize imply indicate infer maintain prove presume reveal show state
- Smith argues that the data have been misinterpreted.
- Researchers have claimed that the procedure is harmful.
- Positivists find that social disorders are exacerbated by class issues.
- We can infer that both states are essential.
However, not all reporting verbs are followed by noun clauses. Some verbs require different grammatical structures:
1. Verb + (somebody/something) + for + Noun/Gerund
blame censure commend condemn criticize decry
- She criticized the researcher for his use of incomplete data.
- He blamed the lack of funding for his failure to meet the deadline.
- They commended the student for working so hard.
2. Verb + something/somebody + as + Noun/Gerund
appraise assess characterize class classify define depict describe evaluate interpret portray present view
- He interpreted the findings as a defeat for his hypothesis.
- She identified the remains as belonging to an elderly man.
- Singh presents this hypothesis as the most likely of the three.
- The author interprets the data as evidence for her hypothesis.
Written by Martine Johnson.
Copyright 2001. All rights reserved.
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